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新概念优美背诵短文50篇 Unit10:Types of Speech

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Standard usage includes those words and expressions understood, used, and accepted by a majority of the speakers of a language in any situation regardless of the level of formality. As such, these words and expressions are well defined and listed in standard dictionaries. Colloquialisms2, on the other hand, are familiar words and idioms that are understood by almost all speakers of a language and used in informal speech or writing, but not considered appropriate for more formal situations. Almost all idiomatic3 expressions are colloquial1 language. Slang, however, refers to words and expressions understood by a large number of speakers but not accepted as good, formal usage by the majority. Colloquial expressions and even slang may be found in standard dictionaries but will be so identified. Both colloquial usage and slang are more common in speech than in writing.

Colloquial speech often passes into standard speech. Some slang also passes into standard speech, but other slang expressions enjoy momentary4 popularity followed by obscurity. In some cases, the majority never accepts certain slang phrases but nevertheless retains them in their collective memories. Every generation seems to require its own set of words to describe familiar objects and events. It has been pointed5 out by a number of linguists6 that three cultural conditions are necessary for the creation of a large body of slang expressions. First, the introduction and acceptance of new objects and situations in the society; second, a diverse population with a large number of subgroups; third, association among the subgroups and the majority population.

Finally, it is worth noting that the terms "standard" "colloquial" and "slang" exist only as abstract labels for scholars who study language. Only a tiny number of the speakers of any language will be aware that they are using colloquial or slang expressions. Most speakers of English will, during appropriate situations, select and use all three types of expressions.

 


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1 colloquial ibryG     
adj.口语的,会话的
参考例句:
  • It's hard to understand the colloquial idioms of a foreign language.外语里的口头习语很难懂。
  • They have little acquaintance with colloquial English. 他们对英语会话几乎一窍不通。
2 colloquialisms 3686fccd90715169dd3cfc08dbbd3b1e     
n.俗话,白话,口语( colloquialism的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • There are as many colloquialisms in Japanese as are in Chinese. 中日文中存在着大量的四字熟语。 来自互联网
  • It is getting better, but It'still struggles with colloquialisms and idioms. 机器翻译的质量虽然有所改善,但翻译起口语体和习语来还是困难重重。 来自互联网
3 idiomatic ob8xN     
adj.成语的,符合语言习惯的
参考例句:
  • In our reading we should always be alert for idiomatic expressions.我们在阅读过程中应经常注意惯用法。
  • In his lecture,he bore down on the importance of idiomatic usage in a language.他在演讲中着重强调了语言中习惯用法的重要性。
4 momentary hj3ya     
adj.片刻的,瞬息的;短暂的
参考例句:
  • We are in momentary expectation of the arrival of you.我们无时无刻不在盼望你的到来。
  • I caught a momentary glimpse of them.我瞥了他们一眼。
5 pointed Il8zB4     
adj.尖的,直截了当的
参考例句:
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
6 linguists fe6c8058ec322688d888d3401770a03c     
n.通晓数国语言的人( linguist的名词复数 );语言学家
参考例句:
  • The linguists went to study tribal languages in the field. 语言学家们去实地研究部落语言了。 来自辞典例句
  • The linguists' main interest has been to analyze and describe languages. 语言学家的主要兴趣一直在于分析并描述语言。 来自辞典例句
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TAG标签:   新概念  背诵  短文  type  speech
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