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VOA慢速英语2018 研究显示:海洋面临严重威胁

时间:2018-02-19 23:59来源:互联网 提供网友:nan   字体: [ ]

Several Studies Show Oceans Face Serious Threats

The world’s oceans are sick, and getting sicker every day.


Two new studies show the warming of Earth’s atmosphere is removing oxygen from ocean waters and harming coral reefs2.


Oxygen is necessary for all life in the oceans, except for a few extremely small organisms.And researchers said oxygen levels are low enough to threaten all the ocean life that depends on it.


Denise Breitburg is an ocean scientist at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center.She is also a member of the Global Ocean Oxygen Network, a team of scientists organized by the United Nations to study the issue.

丹尼斯· 布雷特博格是史密森尼环境研究中心的海洋科学家。她也是全球海洋氧气网络的成员,这是一个联合国组织的研究海洋问题的科学家小组。

Breitburg told the Associated Press, “If you can’t breathe, nothing else matters.That pretty much describes it.”


The journal Science published the two studies.The first describes how the growing problem of falling oxygen levels is more complex than experts had thought.The second study shows that rising ocean temperatures are greatly increasing coral reef1 bleaching3 events.


Scientists with the Global Ocean Oxygen Network reported that more than 32 million square kilometers of ocean are low in oxygen.These affected4 areas reach a depth of about 200 meters.


This area is bigger than Africa, the second largest continent.The scientists say the area of low oxygen levels has grown about 16 percent since 1950.


The Global Ocean Oxygen Network’s report is the widest reaching look at decreasing oxygen levels in the world’s seas so far.Lisa Levin is a professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and a co-author of the report.


In her words, “The low oxygen problem is the biggest unknown climate change consequence out there.”


Levin said past research had shown low oxygen areas that were the result of agricultural pollution.She said past studies also showed how warmer waters had created a lack of oxygen.But Levin said this latest study shows how both problems are connected by common causes and possible solutions.


Co-author Denise Breitburg said that some low oxygen levels in the world’s ocean are natural, but not to the extent found.Wind patterns and ocean currents, believed caused by global warming,are preventing oxygen from sinking below the surface of the water.In addition, warmer water does not hold as much oxygen and less oxygen mixes into the water, she said.

合著者丹尼斯· 布雷特博格说,海洋的低氧含量很自然,但是没有达到他们发现的这种程度。风向和洋流是由全球变暖引起的,阻止了氧气沉入水底。她说,另外,温暖的水携带不了多少氧气,进入水里的氧气就会变少。

In the other study, a team of experts looked at 100 coral reefs around the world.They examined how often the reefs experienced severe bleaching events since 1980.


Bleaching happens when water temperature rises just 1 degree Celsius5 above the normal high for an area.Before the 1980s, reefs that experienced bleaching would have 25 to 30 years before another event.The new study finds that bleaching events are now only about six years apart.


Bleaching is not quite killing6 the sensitive corals.But it is breaking down the algae7 that lives inside them.This severely8 sickens the coral.


Co-author Mark Eakin runs the Coral Reef Watch program for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric9 Administration.He said coral reefs near Guam are some of the hardest hit.He said there have eight severe bleaching incidents there since 1994.Four of the incidents were in the last five years.


Eakin said that it takes time to recover from bleaching.But, he said, now bleachings are happening too often for coral to recover.


Only six of the 100 coral reefs had not experienced severe bleaching.Four are around Australia, one is in the Indian Ocean and another is off South Africa’s coast.


But bleaching is not the only issue coral reefs face.Trash is also a danger.Another team of researchers recently reported about tons of plastic waste trapped in coral reefs from Thailand to Australia.The plastic is severely sickening the reefs, they said.


That study was also published in the journal Science.It found that a total of 11.1 billion pieces of plastic are stuck in reefs in the Asia-Pacific region.The waste includes plastic bags and fishing equipment.


The scientists predicted the amount of plastic would rise 40 percent by 2025.


Plastic increases the likelihood10 of coral disease by about 20 times.It can damage the structure, weakening a coral reef’s defenses.Plastic can also transport other organisms that harm coral.


The study’s authors urged stronger restrictions11 on plastic waste.They also said better management of the fishing industry is necessary to protect coral.


Words in This Story

coral reef(s) – n. a long line of hard material formed on the bottom of the sea by the skeletons12 of small creatures that lies in warm, shallow water

journal – n. a magazine that reports on things of special interest to a particular group of people

bleaching – n. the removal color from something especially through the effect of sunlight or by using chemicals

author – n. a person who has written something

consequence – n. something that happens as a result of a particular action or set of conditions

(to the) extent – n. used to describe the effect or importance of something in relation to something else

pattern(s) – n. the regular and repeated way in which something happens or is done

quite – adj. completely or entirely13

sensitive – adj. easily affected by something in a way that is not pleasant or good

algae – n. simple plants that have no leaves or stems14 and that grow in or near water

trash – n. things that are no longer useful or wanted and that have been thrown away

ton(s) – n. a large amount

region – n. a part of a country or of the world that is different or separate from other parts in some way

management – n. the act or process of controlling and dealing with something


1 reef mUhxH     
  • The ship and its crew were lost on the reef.那条船及船员都触礁遇难了。
  • The ship was wrecked on a coral reef.这条船在珊瑚暗礁上撞毁了。
2 reefs 0b9ff9fe6897bd050ab9e7711960aeb0     
  • The motorboat cut across swift currents and skirted dangerous reefs. 汽艇穿过激流,绕过险滩。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Fish are abundant about the reefs. 暗礁附近鱼很多。 来自《简明英汉词典》
3 bleaching c8f59fe090b4d03ec300145821501bd3     
  • Moderately weathered rock showed more intense bleaching and fissuring in the feldspars. 中等风化岩石则是指长石有更为强烈的变白现象和裂纹现象。
  • Bleaching effects are very strong and show on air photos. 退色效应非常强烈,并且反映在航空象片上。
4 affected TzUzg0     
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
5 Celsius AXRzl     
  • The temperature tonight will fall to seven degrees Celsius.今晚气温将下降到七摄氏度。
  • The maximum temperature in July may be 36 degrees Celsius.七月份最高温度可能达到36摄氏度。
6 killing kpBziQ     
  • Investors are set to make a killing from the sell-off.投资者准备清仓以便大赚一笔。
  • Last week my brother made a killing on Wall Street.上个周我兄弟在华尔街赚了一大笔。
7 algae tK6yW     
  • Most algae live in water.多数藻类生长在水中。
  • Algae grow and spread quickly in the lake.湖中水藻滋蔓。
8 severely SiCzmk     
  • He was severely criticized and removed from his post.他受到了严厉的批评并且被撤了职。
  • He is severely put down for his careless work.他因工作上的粗心大意而受到了严厉的批评。
9 atmospheric 6eayR     
  • Sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation are strongly coupled.海洋表面温度与大气环流是密切相关的。
  • Clouds return radiant energy to the surface primarily via the atmospheric window.云主要通过大气窗区向地表辐射能量。
10 likelihood 91MxW     
  • We must try our best to reduce the likelihood of war.我们必须尽最大努力减少战争的可能性。
  • I don't think there is any likelihood of his agreeing to it.我认为不会有他同意那件事情的可能。
11 restrictions 81e12dac658cfd4c590486dd6f7523cf     
约束( restriction的名词复数 ); 管制; 制约因素; 带限制性的条件(或规则)
  • I found the restrictions irksome. 我对那些限制感到很烦。
  • a snaggle of restrictions 杂乱无章的种种限制
12 skeletons 138f64f4bf514101e6f6e68f9b00bcd9     
n.(建筑物等的)骨架( skeleton的名词复数 );骨骼;梗概;骨瘦如柴的人(或动物)
  • Only skeletons of buildings remained. 只剩下了建筑物的框架。 来自辞典例句
  • It looks like six skeletons in front of that stone door! 在这石头门前看上去就象有六副骨骼! 来自辞典例句
13 entirely entirely     
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
14 stems 01af57e4ae6d799566f5695b3679756b     
n.(花草的)茎( stem的名词复数 );词干;(高脚酒杯的)脚;烟斗柄v.遏制[阻止](液体的流动等)( stem的第三人称单数 );封堵;遏止
  • The present wave of strikes stems from discontent among the lower-paid. 当前的罢工浪潮起因于低工资雇员们的不满情绪。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Her interest in flowers stems from her childhood in the country. 她对花卉的兴趣产生于她在乡下度过的童年时代。 来自《简明英汉词典》
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